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Ingest data from PostgreSQL CDC

Change Data Capture (CDC) refers to the process of identifying and capturing data changes in a database, then delivering the changes to a downstream service in real time.


The supported PostgreSQL versions are 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14.

You can ingest CDC data from PostgreSQL in two ways:

  • Using the PostgreSQL CDC connector

    This connector is included in RisingWave. With this connector, RisingWave can connect to PostgreSQL directly to obtain data from the binlog without starting additional services.

  • Using a CDC tool and the Kafka connector

    You can use the Debezium connector for PostgreSQL and then use the Kafka connector in RisingWave to consume data from the Kafka topics.

Using the native PostgreSQL CDC connector

Set up PostgreSQL

  1. Ensure that the wal_level of your PostgreSQL is logical. Check by using the following statement.

    SHOW wal_level;

    By default, it is replica. For CDC, you will need to set it to logical in the database configuration file (postgresql.conf) or via a psql command. The following command will change the wal_level.

    ALTER SYSTEM SET wal_level = logical;

    Keep in mind that changing the wal_level requires a restart of the PostgreSQL instance and can affect database performance.

  2. Assign REPLICATION, LOGIN and CREATEDB role attributes to the user.

    For an existing user, run the following statement to assign the attributes:


    For a new user, run the following statement to create the user and assign the attributes:


    You can check your role attributes by using the \du psql command:

    dev-# \du
    List of roles
    Role name | Attributes | Member of
    rw | Create DB, Replication | {}
    postgres | Superuser, Create role, Create DB, Replication, Bypass RLS | {}
  3. Grant required priviledges to the user.

    Run the following statements to grant the required priviledges to the user.

    GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE <database_name> TO <username>;   
    GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA <schema_name> TO <username>;
    GRANT SELECT ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA <schema_name> TO <username>;

    You can use the following statement to check the priviledges of the user to the tables:

    postgres=# SELECT table_name, grantee, privilege_type
    FROM information_schema.role_table_grants
    WHERE grantee='<username>';

    An example result:

     table_name | grantee | privilege_type
    lineitem | rw | SELECT
    customer | rw | SELECT
    nation | rw | SELECT
    orders | rw | SELECT
    part | rw | SELECT
    partsupp | rw | SELECT
    supplier | rw | SELECT
    region | rw | SELECT
    (8 rows)

Enable the connector node in RisingWave

The native PostgreSQL CDC connector is implemented by the connector node in RisingWave. The connector node handles the connections with upstream and downstream systems. You can use the docker-compose configuration of the latest RisingWave demo, in which the connector node is enabled by default. To learn about how to start RisingWave with this configuration, see Docker Compose.

Create a table using the native CDC connector

To ensure all data changes are captured, you must create a table and specify primary keys. See the CREATE TABLE command for more details. The data format must be Debezium JSON.


CREATE TABLE [ IF NOT EXISTS ] source_name (
column_name data_type PRIMARY KEY , ...
PRIMARY KEY ( column_name, ... )
<field>=<value>, ...

Note that a primary key is required.

WITH parameters

Unless specified otherwise, the fields listed are required.

hostnameHostname of the database.
portPort number of the database.
usernameUsername of the database.
passwordPassword of the database.
database.nameName of the database.
schema.nameOptional. Name of the schema. By default, the value is public.
table.nameName of the table that you want to ingest data from.
slot.nameOptional. The slot name for each PostgreSQL source. By default, each slot name will be randomly generated. Each source should have a unique slot name.

Data format

Data is in Debezium JSON format. Debezium is a log-based CDC tool that can capture row changes from various database management systems such as PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQL Server and generate events with consistent structures in real time. The PostgreSQL CDC connector in RisingWave supports JSON as the serialization format for Debezium data. The data format does not need to be specified when creating a table with postgres-cdc as the source.


CREATE TABLE shipments (
shipment_id integer,
order_id integer,
origin string,
destination string,
is_arrived boolean,
PRIMARY KEY (shipment_id)
) WITH (
connector = 'postgres-cdc',
hostname = '',
port = '5432',
username = 'postgres',
password = 'postgres', = 'dev', = 'public', = 'shipments', = 'shipments'

Use the Debezium connector for PostgreSQL

Set up PostgreSQL

Before using the native PostgreSQL CDC connector in RisingWave, you need to complete several configurations for PostgreSQL. For details, see Set up PostgreSQL. There are instructions on how to set up the self-hosted PostgreSQL and AWS RDS.

Deploy the Debezium connector for PostgreSQL

You need to download and configure the Debezium connector for PostgreSQL, and then add the configuration to your Kafka Connect cluster. For details, see the Deployment section.

Create a table using the Kafka connector

To ensure all data changes are captured, you must create a table and specify primary keys. See the CREATE TABLE command for more details. The data format must be Debezium JSON.

CREATE TABLE source_name (
column1 varchar,
column2 integer,
PRIMARY KEY (column1)

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